A cavity can damage your tooth through enamel and it will keep damaging it inside and cause nerve(pulp) involvement which can lead to pain or sensitivity unless it’s stopped. A filling is a soft resin material that is inserted into a clean tooth to restore its size and functions after drilling away the cavity. Soft resin is hardened with a curing light. Often times this procedure requires freezing of the involved tooth to make it comfortable for the patient. Sometimes filling may need to be replaced if broken or worn away over the time.